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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 98-107

Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the Gujarati fear-avoidance components scale

1 Department of Musculoskeletal, Physiotherapy, Sarvajanik College of Physiotherapy, Surat, Gujarat, India
2 Research Coordinator, PRIDE Research Foundation, Dallas, Texas, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Dibyendunarayan Dhrubaprasad Bid
Sarvajanik College of Physiotherapy, Rampura, Surat - 395 003, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_35_19

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BACKGROUND: The Fear-Avoidance Components Scale (FACS) is a relatively new patient-reported outcome measure to measure pain-related fear avoidance (FA). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the FACS into the Gujarati language and to determine the test–retest reliability and cross-cultural validity of the FACS-G in Gujarati-speaking Indian patients. METHODS: Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original English version of the FACS were performed according to published guidelines. Test-item comprehension was verified in a group of 20 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders (CMPDs) with a written survey and cognitive debriefing interview. The content validity of the final version of the FACS-G was then ascertained from a survey of 30 health-care professionals. A cohort of 150 CMPD patients completed the FACS-G and other FA-related patient-reported outcome measures to determine internal consistency, test–retest reliability, agreement, minimal detectable change (MDC), and construct validity. RESULTS: In the opinion of the health-care professional panel, the content validity was very good. The internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.827) and test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.923 [95% confidence interval = 0.837–0.963]) were both excellent. The MDC was found to be 13.27 points (scale range = 0–100). The FACS-G correlated most strongly with the FA Beliefs Questionnaire-G (r = 0.705), which supports the concept of convergent validity. It showed a weaker association with the depressive symptom subset of the Patient Health Questionnaire (r = 0.461), which supports the concept of divergent validity. It correlated moderately with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire-G (r = 0.615) and Numerical Pain Rating Scale score (r = 0.521; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The FACS-G showed strong psychometric properties, providing evidence of the conceptual equivalence with the original English version. The FACS-G appears to be a reliable instrument for measuring FA in Gujarati patients with CMPD.

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