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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-June 2019
Volume 13 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-51

Online since Saturday, June 29, 2019

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EDITORIAL  

The allied and health-care professions bill 2018: Implications for physiotherapists Highly accessed article p. 1
Akhoury Gourang Kumar Sinha
DOI:10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_17_19  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Pragati Pustak – A parent-oriented screening tool for identification of developmental delay in children till 2 years of age p. 5
Suvarna Ganvir, Chetana Kunde, Maheshwari Harishchandre, Shyam Ganvir
DOI:10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_29_18  
INTRODUCTION: To empower the parents to detect developmental delay in the early stage of a child's life, a community-oriented tool was developed. This tool primarily aimed at helping parents of children till 2 years of age to monitor the development of their child and if there is any red flag signs which indicated that the child needs health care. Early identification of this delay is important in reducing the complications and its related morbidity and disability. METHOD: Twelve villages around the institute were covered wherein the parents of children till 2 years of age were contacted by a team of physiotherapy and were provided with this Pragati Pustak. It is a card on which information about normal developmental milestones is provided along with the red flag signs in the pictorial format. Information about the use of this tool was provided. RESULT: Parents found it easy to use this card and were comfortable in using the card. Physiotherapy team identified 49 children with developmental delay during their visit to these villages. These children were then treated in the institute for their developmental delay. CONCLUSION: Pragati Pustak is an effective tool which can be used by parents effectively to monitor developmental milestones of their child.
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Reliability of modified sphygmomanometer for measurement of maximum isometric shoulder muscle strength p. 9
Sakina Bhinderwala, Nilima Bedekar
DOI:10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_15_18  
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the changes in muscle performance, precise, reliable, and valid methods to assess muscle performance should be applied. Sphygmomanometer is an easily available instrument; it has been used to evaluate the isometric strength of various muscles in various conditions. The reliability of the method can be compromised by insufficient examiner's strength and insufficient stabilization of the sphygmomanometer and participant. The objective of this study was to investigate test–retest reliability of the sphygmomanometer to assess shoulder maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) against stable surface. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study design using purposive sampling; 112 healthy individuals were recruited for strength testing. Over 3 days' interval, the MVIC of the shoulder flexor, abductor, extensor, external rotator, and internal rotator muscles strength was evaluated with an aneroid sphygmomanometer against the stable surface in sitting position. RESULTS: The results indicated excellent test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.995–0.999) with nonsignificant P value for (0.12) extensor and (0.179) internal rotator and significant P value for (0.01) flexor, (0.000) abductor, and (0.006) external rotator sphygmomanometer to assess the shoulder muscle strength against stable surface. CONCLUSION: A sphygmomanometer was found to have excellent test–retest reliability to assess the MVIC of shoulder muscles.
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Validation of Duke Activity Status Index questionnaire to determine functional capacity in young healthy nonexercising individuals p. 14
Saba Khan, Razia Nagarwala, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti
DOI:10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_38_18  
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to correlate maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) obtained from subjective measure using Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) scale with objective assessment of aerobic capacity measured by VO2 max during submaximal exercise testing in young healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight young healthy nonexercising individuals were recruited in the study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The participants were made to undergo exercise testing on treadmill using modified Bruce protocol and maximal aerobic capacity was calculated. The participants were made to answer DASI questionnaire, and VO2 max was calculated using the questionnaire. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant but moderate correlation (r = 0.339 and P= 0.001) found between VO2 max obtained from DASI scale and VO2 max obtained from exercise testing. CONCLUSION: The subjective functional scales (DASI) used to assess basic physical capacity have moderate ability to predict actual functional capacity as measured by VO2 max achieved by objective assessment of aerobic capacity by exercise testing in young healthy individuals.
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Study of the association between scapular position and mobile phone usage in college students: An observational descriptive study p. 18
Tanvee Vora, Khushbu Goda, Neha Dhole, Chhaya Verma, Sonal Vichare
DOI:10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_28_18  
INTRODUCTION: Scapula forms the basis of upper-extremity posture, and any alteration in the position of the scapula is a predisposing factor for musculoskeletal aches and pain. STUDY OBJECTIVE: The study's objective was to find the association between scapular position and mobile phone usage in college students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional correlation study conducted at a tertiary care government hospital. On receiving approval by the Institutional Ethics Committee, participants of both genders between the age group of 18–25 years and using mobile phones for at least more than 1 year were included in the study. Participants were screened for their mobile phone usage using the Problematic Mobile phone usage questionnaire (PMPUQ) with due permission received from the original author of the scale, and their scapular region pain was assessed using Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). All participants were assessed for their scapular position using lateral scapular slide test (LSST) and acromion to table test. RESULTS: Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 version. As the data did not pass normality, nonparametric test of correlation, i.e., Spearman's bivariate correlation test, was applied. No significant correlation with P > 0.05 was found between problematic mobile phone usage score (PMPUQ) and pain (NRS), and no significant correlation was found with P > 0.05 between problematic mobile phone usage score and acromion to table test bilaterally and LSST for inferior angle at 0°, 45°, and 90° position. CONCLUSION: This showed that pain in the scapular region was not related to an individual's mobile phone use and can have various other contributory factors.
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Acute effects of softball pitching to fatigue on the glenohumeral internal rotation range of motion p. 23
Amitabh Dashottar
DOI:10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_30_18  
BACKGROUND: The effects of baseball pitching on the glenohumeral joint (GHJ) range of motion (ROM) have been widely studied. Specifically, internal rotation (IR) ROM reduction of the pitching arm, an adaptation to repeated overhead throwing, is linked to increased risk of injuries in baseball pitchers. However, there is a lack of literature on the effects of softball pitching on the GHJ ROM. HYPOTHESIS: Softball pitching to fatigue will result in significant reduction of GHJ supine IR ROM. DESIGN: Test–retest, quasi-experimental study. METHODS: Twelve softball pitchers (age: 19.5 ± 1.8 years) volunteered to participate in this study. GHJ ROM in supine IR, horizontal adduction, low flexion (shoulder joint flexed to 60°; added IR), extension with IR (shoulder joint abducted to 60° in the plane of scapula and then horizontally abducted 90° with the elbow maintained in 90° flexion; add GH IR), and supine external rotation were compared before and after a single bout of softball pitching to fatigue or a maximum of 100 pitches, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: Maximum ROM change post softball pitching was observed in horizontal adduction but not in supine IR. CONCLUSIONS: Maximum ROM change was observed in horizontal adduction. Supine IR ROM measurement may not be appropriate for assessing softball pitchers' shoulder ROM because this measurement was not affected by the softball pitching.
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Construct validity and factor analysis of the Gujarati version of the fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire p. 30
Dibyendunarayan Dhrubaprasad Bid, Thangamani Ramalingam Alagappan
DOI:10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_11_18  
BACKGROUND: Although commonly used, no reports exist on the testing of the construct validity and factor analysis of the Gujarati version of the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ-G). STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational prospective study. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to assess the construct validity and factor analysis of the Gujarati version of the FABQ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Item analysis, factor analysis, and construct validity were done with 128 chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Convergent and divergent validity (Pearson's correlation) was assessed by comparing FABQ-G to Numerical Pain Rating Scale, pressure pain threshold, Central Sensitization Inventory-Gujarati (CSI-G), Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire-Gujarati (RMDQ-G), trunk flexors endurance, and trunk extensors endurance in CLBP patients. Potential ceiling and floor effects and prediction power were measured along with internal and external responsiveness of FABQ. Results: This study shows a three-factor model for FABQ-G. The convergent validity of the FABQ-G was supported by the pattern of correlations with the RMDQ-G (r = 0.514 and P < 0.000) and CSI-G (r = 0.455 and P < 0.000) in our study. The divergent validity was seen by negative correlation or no correlation with trunk flexors and extensors endurance (r = −0.266 and P < 0.002). No ceiling and floor effects were detected in the questionnaire. The FABQ showed good prediction power and responsiveness in both internal and external responsiveness analyses. Conclusion: The reasonable validity of the three-factor FABQ-G shown in this study makes it appropriate for the clinical use with Gujarati CLBP patients.
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Comparison of foot structure between urban and rural Indian school children p. 38
Blessy Thomas, Yuvraj Lalit Singh, Rajani P Mullerpatan
DOI:10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_10_18  
INTRODUCTION: Limited information on morphological characteristics of feet among rural (walking predominantly bare foot) and urban Indian children motivated this study. The objective was to study and compare foot characteristics of Indian rural and urban school children. METHOD: A convenience sample of 200 healthy children aged 6-15 yrs with no history of foot pain was studied. 100 rural children were matched on marginal distributions for age and body mass with 100 urban children for comparison. Plantar pressure and foot geometry measurements were collected using EMED-SF system. Medial longitudinal arch height was recorded using Arch Index (AI). ANCOVA and Independent sample t-test were used for between group comparisons. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Rural Indian children presented with 24 % lower body weight (BMI rural children = 15.35; BMI urban children = 18.17) and 5% lower height. When corrected for stature, they had 4% shorter feet, 3% wider forefoot, 28% narrower mid foot and 15% higher arches compared to urban children. When corrected for body weight, rural children demonstrated approximately 22% lower pressures in forefoot and 5% in the mid foot. Foot characteristics of rural children can be considered favorable in development of MLA and prevention of forefoot injuries resulting from overuse.
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Impact of body mass index on cognitive function among young adults p. 43
Shivani Chauhan, Suchi Shah, Salvi Shah
DOI:10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_44_18  
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cognition is the mental action on the process of acknowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and sense. A glowing body of literature is binding that being overweight (OW) or obese (O) has an effect on cognition as well as on physical functioning. A better understanding of this relationship could help target psychological services and public health strategies more effectively. The aim of the present study was to find out the impact of body mass index (BMI) on cognitive function among young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenient sample of 300 participants aged between 18 and 24 years was selected for the study. Demographic data and anthropometric measurements were taken. After that, BMI was calculated for all participants and participants were divided into two groups: Group A (normal BMI, n = 150) and Group B (OW/O, n = 130). Twenty students were excluded from the study because of their underweight. Rest of the participants (n = 280) were asked to performed Rey Verbal Auditory Learning test (RVALT), Stroop test, and Trail Making test A and B. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Unpaired t-test was used to find out a significant difference in cognitive functions among two groups. RESULTS: It was found that cognition score (all three tests) obtained by normal BMI group was higher than score obtained by OW/O group (RVALT: P<0.0001, Stroop test: P<0.0001, Trail Making Test: Part A: P < 0.04 and for Part B: P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The present study concluded that high BMI individuals have lower cognitive functions.
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Students' perception of vertically integrated learning approach in physiotherapy education: An exploratory case study p. 48
Kavitha Raja, Jakson K Joseph, Jerin Mathew
DOI:10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_49_18  
CONTEXT: The provision of advanced learning experience for physiotherapy students depends on the effective learning strategies adopted by the institution according to the existing needs of the society, developments in scientific technology, and current trends in educational field (Bandiera et al., p. 381-7). The major factor that impacts the capacity of physiotherapists to be active agents in leading their future is the nature of the educational contexts evolving in international health care system. Globally, there have been many innovations in teaching and learning methods of physiotherapy, which includes self-directed learning, problem-based learning, evidence-based learning, and integrated learning (IL). The perceived importance of each subject in physiotherapy may differ among teachers and students tend to echo their opinions. AIMS: The aim of this study was to understand physiotherapy students' perception of vertically IL approach. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Institutional setting and qualitative research design. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A qualitative methodology using focused group discussion (FGD) was done with five students from each class were involved in individual FGD. DATA ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: Results are represented as codes and themes. INFERENCES: In the current study, our students showed a positive attitude toward IL seminars. They felt that the program helped them to create a meaningful connection between basic science and clinical subjects.
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