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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 18-22

Study of the association between scapular position and mobile phone usage in college students: An observational descriptive study


P.T. School and Centre, T.N.M.C and B.Y.L Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, India

Date of Submission19-Mar-2019
Date of Acceptance10-Apr-2019
Date of Web Publication29-Jun-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Tanvee Vora
9/202, Shakti Nagar, Dahisar (East), Mumbai - 400 068
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_28_18

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  Abstract 

INTRODUCTION: Scapula forms the basis of upper-extremity posture, and any alteration in the position of the scapula is a predisposing factor for musculoskeletal aches and pain.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The study's objective was to find the association between scapular position and mobile phone usage in college students.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional correlation study conducted at a tertiary care government hospital. On receiving approval by the Institutional Ethics Committee, participants of both genders between the age group of 18–25 years and using mobile phones for at least more than 1 year were included in the study. Participants were screened for their mobile phone usage using the Problematic Mobile phone usage questionnaire (PMPUQ) with due permission received from the original author of the scale, and their scapular region pain was assessed using Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). All participants were assessed for their scapular position using lateral scapular slide test (LSST) and acromion to table test.
RESULTS: Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 version. As the data did not pass normality, nonparametric test of correlation, i.e., Spearman's bivariate correlation test, was applied. No significant correlation with P > 0.05 was found between problematic mobile phone usage score (PMPUQ) and pain (NRS), and no significant correlation was found with P > 0.05 between problematic mobile phone usage score and acromion to table test bilaterally and LSST for inferior angle at 0°, 45°, and 90° position.
CONCLUSION: This showed that pain in the scapular region was not related to an individual's mobile phone use and can have various other contributory factors.

Keywords: Lateral scapular side test, mobile phone usage, problematic mobile phone use questionnaire, scapular pain, scapular position


How to cite this article:
Vora T, Goda K, Dhole N, Verma C, Vichare S. Study of the association between scapular position and mobile phone usage in college students: An observational descriptive study. Physiother - J Indian Assoc Physiother 2019;13:18-22

How to cite this URL:
Vora T, Goda K, Dhole N, Verma C, Vichare S. Study of the association between scapular position and mobile phone usage in college students: An observational descriptive study. Physiother - J Indian Assoc Physiother [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Jul 19];13:18-22. Available from: http://www.pjiap.org/text.asp?2019/13/1/18/261816


  Introduction Top


According to the Global Information Technology Report 2001–2002, a nation's growth is measured in terms of networked readiness. As a consequence, this era of the 21st century is highly dependent on technological advancement which is not only seen in the corporate world but also is an essential part of an individual's daily life.[1] This technical growth has ultimately led to a sedentary, easy, and tech-savvy lifestyle modifications, especially for the younger population. A study conducted in 2010 explains that the youth is getting more and more dependent on mobile phones.[2] Due to this increasing usage of mobile phones for study and entertainment by the young adults, we find most individuals in various hazardous postures. For young adults, daily functions unknowingly are associated with their use of mobile phones for surfing the internet, studying, listening to music, or playing games, especially during the traveling hours. This can be one of the factors making the youth prone to adapting a rounded shoulder posture, thus affecting the scapula position. Posture must correspond to a specific body position in space that minimizes the antigravitational stresses in body tissues. Poor posture is a result of poor relations between body parts. These interrelations cause muscle tension and muscle shortening, preventing appropriate joint movement and pain.[3]

A 2011 study highlights the important role of scapula in deciding the upper-extremity postural alignment.[4] Continuous usage of mobile phones by young adults can result in altered scapular alignment causing muscle imbalances and faulty posture at a young age, which is one of the causative factors in predisposing the youth to early musculoskeletal disorders and pain.[5] Due to these changing trends, one must look at an individual's usage of mobile phone and thus the individual's scapula position. As fewer studies have highlighted this to be one of the causative factors, our study was conducted to see if there is any relationship between scapular position and mobile phone usage in young adults and allowing us to have a holistic approach of treatment according to the International Classification of Functioning Model, Geneva 2002.[6]


  Materials and Methods Top


Study design

Our cross-sectional correlation study was conducted after receiving approval from institutional ethics committee. Fifty-three undergraduate and postgraduate physiotherapy students were included in our study.

Participants and data collection

A study on 53 undergraduate and postgraduate students began by obtaining a voluntary written consent from each participant. Study was conducted in a clinic setting of government tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. Participants meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Participants were screened for their mobile phone usage using the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ)[7] and for their scapular region pain using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). All participants were assessed for their scapular position using lateral scapular slide test (LSST) and acromion to table test.[8]

Inclusion criteria

  • Both gender
  • Age group of 18–25 years
  • Mobile phone usage for at least more than a year.


Acromion to table test

Participant was made to lie down on the plinth with hand resting on the stomach comfortably. Acromion process of the scapula was palpated and marked. Distance between the acromion process and the plinth was noted using a ruler bilaterally [Figure 1].[9]
Figure 1: Acromion to table test

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Lateral scapular slide test testing

In the standing position, spinous process from the level of C7 to T11 was marked by the examiner. Inferior angle of the scapula was palpated and marked bilaterally. Distance between inferior angle and the corresponding spinous process (between T7 and T9) was noted bilaterally. Test was performed with hand by the side (at 0°), with hands on waist (at 45°) and with shoulder raised in abduction and medial rotation (at 90°) [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4].[9]
Figure 2: Lateral scapular slide test for inferior angle at 0° position

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Figure 3: Lateral scapular slide test for inferior angle at 45° position

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Figure 4: Lateral scapular slide test for inferior angle at 90° position

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  Results Top


Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 version (SPSS version 16 Inc, IBM in 2009). Of the total number of undergraduate and postgraduate students participated in the study, 15% were males and 85% were females [Figure 5]. Twenty-three students were in the age group of 18–21 years and 30 students were in the age group of 22–25 years. As the data did not pass Shapiro–Wilk test of normality, nonparametric test of correlation, i.e., Spearman's bivariate correlation test, was applied to the data with confidence interval set at 95%. On applying Spearman's correlation test, no significant correlation with P > 0.05 was found between Problematic mobile phone usage questionnaire and NRS [Graph 1]. This showed that pain in the scapular region was not related to an individual's mobile phone use and can have other confounding factors responsible for it. There was no correlation found between Problematic mobile phone usage questionnaire (PMPUQ) and acromion to table test bilaterally [Table 1] and [Graph 2]. We did not get any correlation between Problematic mobile phone usage questionnaire (PMPUQ) and LSST for inferior angle at 0°, 45°, and 90° position [Table 1] and [Graph 3], [Graph 4], [Graph 5]. Thus, the results of our study hold the null hypothesis to be true as there is no significant association between scapular position and mobile phone usage among the participants.
Figure 5: Gender distribution: 8 males and 45 females

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Table 1: Tabular presentation of data

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  Discussion Top


Our study demonstrates no significant association between primary outcomes, i.e., Problematic mobile phone usage questionnaire (PMPUQ) with LSST for inferior angle at 0°, 45°, and 90° position and Problematic mobile phone usage questionnaire (PMPUQ) with acromion to table test shows no effect of mobile phone usage on the scapular position [Table 1]. The results of our study can be attributed to various confounding factors like gender bias. Along with these, factors such as prohibited use of mobile phone during the college timings for undergraduate and postgraduate students may also be one of the reasons leading to intermittent use of mobile phones. However, a study demonstrates muscular imbalances due to continuous use of mobile phones affecting scapular alignment and posture. It can also be interchangeably related to varied life stresses for a student, being one of the causes in the near future but not the only reason for altered scapular alignment.[10] Thus, limitations in our study are due to institutional bias leading to limited sample size and unequal gender distribution along with confounding factors such as stress and carrying heavy bags which were not considered in our study.

Due to the involvement of various lifestyle factors such as stress, anxiety, and use of laptop backpacks, youth develops neck pain and mobile phone usage has been interchangeably related to altered scapular position and neck pain as found in a recent study.[10] Our study was an attempt to consider the growing use of mobile phones for youth with musculoskeletal aches and pains.[11] Recreational use and easy surfing on mobile phones have been increased among students beginning at young age which can be considered in preventive rehabilitation in the near future as usage increases with time to avoid early musculoskeletal changes at a young age. Frequent research needs to be conducted for the same.[11]


  Conclusion Top


Our study proves that there is no direct association between scapula position and mobile phone usage in college students.

Acknowledgment

We would like to thank Dean Sir for allowing us to conduct our research in the institution. We are thankful to all undergraduate and postgraduate volunteers to be a part of our study.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patients have given their consent for their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Basu C, Kumar A. Global Information Technology Theory and Frameworks. Journal of Global Information Technology Management 2002;5:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Dixit S, Shukla H, Bhagwat A, Bindal A, Goyal A, Zaidi AK, et al. A study to evaluate mobile phone dependence among students of a medical college and associated hospital of central India. Indian J Community Med 2010;35:339-41.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
3.
Hernandez AJ. Analysis of Possible Disorders Related to Inadequate Mobile Phone Usage Among Health Sciences Students. Curso – Julio. 2015-2016;30-67.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Thomée S, Härenstam A, Hagberg M. Mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults - A prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:222-322.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Choliz M. Mobile- phone addiction in adolescence: The test of mobile phone dependence (TMD). Prog Health Sci 2012;2:5-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Billieux J. Problematic Use of the Mobile Phone: A Literature Review and a Pathways Model. Current Psychiatry Reviews. 2012;8:299-307.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Taspinar F, Aksoy CC, Taspinar B, Cimbiz A. Comparison of patients with different pathologies in terms of shoulder protraction and scapular asymmetry. J Phys Ther Sci 2013;25:1033-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Salvi R, Battin S. Correlation of mobile phone addiction scale (MPAS) score with craniovertebral angle, scapular index and beck's depression Inventory score in young adults. Int J Physiother 2018;5:7-12.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Magee, D. Shoulder Assesment; Orthopedic physical assessment; 5th ed, Canada 2009. p-545-645.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Kim SY, Koo SJ. Effect of duration of smartphone use on muscle fatigue and pain caused by forward head posture in adults. J Phys Ther Sci 2016;28:1669-72.  Back to cited text no. 11
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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