• Users Online: 176
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-29

Comparison of effectiveness of kinesio taping with nonelastic taping and no taping in players with acute shin splints


1 Department of Physiotherapy, DPSRU, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India

Date of Submission23-Feb-2017
Date of Acceptance18-May-2017
Date of Web Publication18-Aug-2017

Correspondence Address:
Akhoury Gourang Kumar Sinha
Department of Physiotherapy, Punjabi University Patiala, Punjab - 147 002
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_4_17

Get Permissions

  Abstract 


Background: Kinesio taping (KT) has emerged as a popular treatment for several health conditions. It is suggested that application of K-tape may prove beneficial in relieving symptoms of shin splints.
Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to gather preliminary evidence about the effectiveness of KT in shin splints.
Methodology: This prospective case–control study was conducted for 3 days on thirty active sports persons afflicted with shin splints (M = 22, F = 8; mean age 19 ± 2.59; duration of symptoms 48.16 ± 13.42 days) assigned randomly into three equal groups. The intervention in control group consisted of 10 min of ice massage followed by 10 min of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. In KT group, Y-strip K-tape was applied to the lower leg using the technique described by Griebert et al. that had shown a reduction in medial loading in medial tibial stress syndrome. In rigid tape (RT) group, white nonelastic adhesive tape cut into a Y-shape similar to KT strip was applied. Outcome measures were duration of 50 m sprint, volume of limb, and pain response at rest, during resisted isometric contraction (RIC) of select muscles, and after completion of 50 m sprint. Two ways repeated measure ANOVA with time as the repeated factor was conducted for each outcome measure with level of significance set at 0.05.
Results: Between the group difference for age (F = 0.35, P = 0.70) and duration of symptom (F = 0.40, P = 0.67) were not significant. The day-by-group interaction was not significant for any outcome measure. For the patient-reported parameters, i.e., pain at rest, pain at RIC, and pain at 50 m sprint, the main effects were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for time but not for groups.
Conclusion: Any benefits of KT over and above RT and control group were not observed in active players presenting with symptoms of shin splints.

Keywords: Kinesio taping, rigid taping, shin splints


How to cite this article:
Sharma U, Sinha AG. Comparison of effectiveness of kinesio taping with nonelastic taping and no taping in players with acute shin splints. Physiother - J Indian Assoc Physiother 2017;11:21-9

How to cite this URL:
Sharma U, Sinha AG. Comparison of effectiveness of kinesio taping with nonelastic taping and no taping in players with acute shin splints. Physiother - J Indian Assoc Physiother [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Aug 20];11:21-9. Available from: http://www.pjiap.org/text.asp?2017/11/1/21/213278




  Introduction Top


Shin splints, a nonspecific term to describe exertional leg pain, is one of the most common problems of athletes,[2] ballet dancers, and military recruits.[3] The condition is characterized by pain along the posteromedial aspect of the distal two-thirds of the tibia that occurs before, during, or after activity.[4] Shin soreness, shin splints syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), and soleus syndrome are the other terms that have been used to describe this exercise-induced pain syndrome.[5] At present, there is no universally accepted consensus on either the etiology or treatment of this condition.[6] The treatment of shin splints focuses on providing symptomatic relief and modifying the risk factors. In clinical practice, the use of various modalities to treat symptoms is common.[6] The acute pain associated with shin splints is treated with the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) regimen. The use of manual therapy techniques such as digital ischemic pressure, transverse friction massage, and sustained myofascial tension has also been advocated.[7] Besides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, iontophoresis, phonophoresis,[8],[9] ice massage,[9] ultrasound,[9],[10] low-energy laser treatment,[11] periosteal pecking,[10] stretching and strengthening exercises, sports compression stocking,[12] lower leg braces,[13],[14] extracorporeal shockwave therapy,[12],[15] and pulsed electromagnetic field have been investigated, but it remains unclear which treatment is most effective.[16],[17]

Over the last decade, kinesio taping (KT) has emerged as a popular treatment for several health conditions. Designed primarily for the treatment of sports-related injuries by a Japanese chiropractitioner, KT is described as different from the traditional white nonelastic athletic tape through its wave-like grain elastic adhesive material mimicking the thickness of human skin.[18] It is claimed that, when applied with appropriate tension, KT lifts the fascia and soft tissue and produces additional space below the area of application which is said to enhance clearance of extra fluid of edema and bleeding by improving circulation and normalize muscle function by realigning fascial tissue and providing increased proprioceptive input.[18] These effects are postulated to bring about immediate reduction of pain and improved athletic performance.[19]

Griebert et al. in 2016 reported that application of KT decreased the rate of medial plantar loading among patients with a history of MTSS and suggested that application of K-tape may prove beneficial in relieving symptoms of shin splints.[1] The investigators could not locate any study that examined the use of KT in shin splints. Keeping this in consideration, this pilot study was designed to have preliminary evidence about the effectiveness of KT in shin splints. The specific research questions were (a) does the addition of KT to conventional symptomatic physiotherapy modalities benefit the players afflicted with shin splints in terms of reducing discomfort and improving performance and (b) can the similar benefits be achieved by application of rigid tape (RT)?


  Methodology Top


Sample

Thirty university level players (mean age 19 ± 2.59 years) of average duration of symptoms 48.16 ± 13.42 days participated in this prospective case–control study for 3 days. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: KT group, RT group, and control (C) group. The inclusion criteria were (a) players participating in regular training program presenting with history of pain located on the posteromedial border of the tibia induced by exercise that lasted for hours or days after exercise, (b) diffuse tenderness/discomfort on palpation of the lower 1/3rd of posteromedial border of the tibia, and (c) no history of paresthesia. The same criteria were used by Moen et al.[20] The exclusion criteria were (a) painful passive movement of the ankle, (b) history of fractures or surgery of the lower limb, (c) history of skin allergies to adhesive tape, (d) preexisting skin conditions such as eczema, dermatitis, and psoriasis, and (e) positive tuning fork test for stress fracture and positive sphygmomanometer test for chronic compartment syndrome.[21],[22] The exclusion criteria were chosen in an attempt to increase homogeneity of sample by excluding the conditions mimicking shin splints and the contraindications of taping and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).

Enrollment and group allocation

Forty-five sports persons of nonspecific leg pain sports persons (age 15–30 years) coming to sports clinic for the treatment of nonspecific leg pain were screened for enrollment in the study using a screening form. Participant satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria was allocated to three groups according to their order of registration in the clinic. The first patient was allocated to KT group, second to RT group, and third was included in group C. This sequence was repeated till the target sample size of ten in each group was achieved. All participants signed informed consent form. The procedure for the study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Punjabi University, Patiala, as per the protocol of Indian Council of Medical Research vide IEC letter no. 29 dated January 21, 2016.

Intervention

Control group

The intervention in control group consisted of cryotherapy and TENS. Ice was applied over entire leg by ice cube massage for 10 minutes. Thereafter, four channel TENSs (pulse rate = 150 Hz, pulse width = 150 μs) applied for another 10 min, using two pairs of self-adhesive electrode placed over anterolateral compartment and posteromedial compartment of the lower leg. The intensity was gradually increased up to the limit of participant's comfort.

Kinesio taping group

The intervention in KT group consisted of cryotherapy, TENS, and KT. For the first 20 min, ice and TENS were applied for 10 min each in the same manner as used in control group. Thereafter, KT was applied to the lower leg by a physiotherapist specializing in sports physiotherapy using the technique described by Griebert et al. (2016) that had shown a reduction in medial loading in MTSS.[1] The tail of a single Y-strip of KT was placed on the proximal third of medial tibia. Each half of the Y-strip was applied in a manner that they lay anterior and posterior to the medial malleolus and terminated under the medial longitudinal arch of the foot [Figure 1]. No tension was applied on the proximal and distal ends of the tape; while the remainder of the tape was applied with 75% tension, player was instructed not to remove the tape.
Figure 1: Application of kinesio taping

Click here to view


Rigid tape group

The intervention in RT group consisted of cryotherapy, TENS, and RT. For the first 20 min, ice and TENS were applied for 10 min each in the same manner as used in control group. The placement of RT was similar to KT. A 6 inch strip of white nonelastic adhesive tape was torn and cut into a Y-shape similar to KT strip. The tail of the tape was placed on the base of the proximal third of the medial tibia, and the ends of the tape were placed medial and lateral to the medial malleolus similar to KT [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Application of rigid tape

Click here to view


Outcome measures

Outcome measures of this study were duration of 50 m sprint, volume of limb, and pain response measured by Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) on three different situations.

50 m sprint

For conduct of this test, the starting and end point of 50 m area on athletic tract were marked with white chalk. Participant was asked to take the position at the starting point and instructed to run at full speed to the end point at command “go.” The time taken to touch the end point in seconds was noted.

Volume of leg

Water displacement method was used for measuring the volume of leg. A volume meter (38 cm length, 33 cm width, and 33 cm height) made up of translucent material was placed on a leveled surface near water supply outside the athletics ground. A tube was connected to the faucet of supply line for filling water in the volume meter chamber up to the brim of the gutter of the volume meter. Participant sitting on a chair was asked to immerse one leg into the water-filled volume meter so that his/her foot was firmly placed in the bottom of volume meter with heel touching the wall of the instrument. Participant sat still till the water stopped flowing. The water flow out of volume meter was collected in a tub and measured using a 1000 ml beaker, 100 ml cylinder, and 10 ml cylinder with calibration of 0.2 ml. This parameter is used for quantifying the change in the volume of a segment resulting from swelling, generalized edema or atrophy. Comparison with the contralateral segment provides an idea of changes occurring in the affected segment.[23]

Pain

The NPRS is a segmented 11-point numeric version of the visual analog scale (VAS) in which a respondent selects a whole number that best reflects the intensity of pain. The numeric scale ranges from “0” representing one pain extreme (e.g., “no pain”) to “10” representing the other pain extreme. The NPRS has been shown to have high interrater/intrarater reliability,[24] excellent internal consistency,[25] and good sensitivity while producing data that can be statistically analyzed. Raw change of 3 points or 27% is required for the NPRS scores to be clinically important in patients with neck/upper extremity/lower extremity.[26] NRPS was used for measuring pain intensity at rest, during resisted isometric contraction (RIC) of select muscles, and after completion of 50 m sprint.

Resisted isometric contraction

The clinic test of resisted isometric movement is used for evaluating muscle, tendon, and its attachments at bone. Depending on the location of elicited pain, a positive test indicates first- and second-degree strain, tendinitis, paratendinitis, or paratenonitis.[23] A strong and painful RIC indicates a local lesion of muscle or tendon. Resisted isometric testing of 11 muscles was performed as per the protocol of standard manual muscle testing.[27] The participant was asked to rate the pain perception of intensity of pain during the RIC of each muscle on NPRS. The muscles evaluated through RIC included extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis, tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneus tertius, and peroneus longus. For the purpose of analysis, the average of 11 scores was computed.

Study protocol

Upon arrival of the participant to clinic, the volume of both legs was measured and the baseline measurement of outcome measures was obtained in the following order: pain at rest, pain with RIC, duration of 50 m sprint, and pain after 50 m sprint. Thereafter, interventions were provided according to the group of participant. After intervention, the outcome measures were evaluated in the same order of preintervention evaluation. Patients were instructed to not to remove KT or consume any medication. The same procedure was followed for the next two sessions conducted at the interval of 24 h. Before start of the 2nd and 3rd session, investigator examined the adherence of tape and if not found proper reapplied the tape. In general, the RT did not retain its place and thus was to be applied afresh in each session. In case of KT, majority of participants retained the tape for the first 2 days.

Statistical analysis

Descriptive statistics were calculated for all the three groups at 6 time intervals: preintervention for days 1, 2, and 3 and postintervention days 1, 2, and 3. The volume of leg was recorded only preintervention on all the 3 days. Two ways repeated measure ANOVA with time as the repeated factor was conducted for each outcome measure with level of significance set at 0.05. The hypothesis of interest was the group-by-time interaction. Our intention was to conduct planned pairwise comparisons to examine differences from baseline to each follow-up point between groups if a significant interaction was identified on a variable. In an attempt to identify the variable that best represents the magnitude of shin splints, a correlation analysis of all the dependent variables was done using parametric (Pearson's) moment product correlation test. For analysis of data and preparation of graphs, SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc.) and Microsoft excel 2007 were used.


  Results Top


The sample consisted of 22 male and 8 female participants participating in different sports (athletics, taekwondo, judo, American football, football, boxing, and kabaddi) with mean age of 19 ± 2.59 years. The average duration of symptom was 48.16 ± 13.42 days. The age, gender, and average duration of symptoms of all the three groups are presented in [Table 1]. Between the group difference for age (F = 0.35, P = 0.70) and duration of symptom (F = 0.40, P = 0.67) were not significant [Table 1].
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of group

Click here to view


The day-by-group interaction was not significant for any outcome measure [Table 2]. For the patient-reported parameters, i.e., pain at rest, pain at RIC, and pain at 50 m sprint, the main effects were significant (P = 0.05) for time but not for groups. Significant effects of group or days were not observed for the parameter of duration of sprint and volume of limb. The mean scores of all the 3 days of KT, RT, and control groups are presented in [Table 3],[Table 4],[Table 5] respectively.
Table 2: Result of ANOVA (F value) of the outcome measures

Click here to view
Table 3: Daywise mean and standard deviation of all the outcome measures in kinesio taping group

Click here to view
Table 4: Daywise mean and standard deviation of all the outcome measures in rigid tape group

Click here to view
Table 5: Daywise mean and standard deviation of all the outcome measures in control group

Click here to view


Statistically significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) of pain at RIC was observed with the parameter of duration of sprint (r = 0.24), pain at rest (r = 0.39), and pain at sprint (r = 0.42). Pain at rest was not significantly correlated with the duration of sprint [Table 4].


  Discussion Top


Studies evaluating the effectiveness of KT have compared KT with no treatment, sham taping, and other interventions and also the addition of KT with other interventions.[19] The present study falls under last category where effect of the addition of RT and KT was compared with ice and TENS application on active sports persons presenting with symptoms of shin splints. To best of the knowledge, this study is probably the first study that reports the effect of KT on shin splints.

The main finding of this study is that any benefits of KT over and above RT and control group were not observed in patient with presenting with symptoms of shin splints. Data of the study indicate that although some improvement over the time in patient-reported parameters has taken place in all the three groups, it was not meaningful. The objective parameter of the functional performance, i.e., duration of sprint also did not show any improvement posttreatment in any group.

In a systematic review, Parreira et al.[19] observed that the addition of KT was no better than other interventions alone for participants with rotator cuff lesion or/and shoulder impingement syndrome,[28] chronic neck pain,[29] patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS),[30] and plantar fasciitis.[31] The findings of the present study extend their observation to the condition of shin splints as well.

In the literature, no validated outcome measure for MTSS is available. The previous studies used different outcome measures making it difficult to compare the findings. Andrish et al. used no reported tenderness or being able to run 500 consecutive meters as outcome measure.[32] Days to return to active duty and time to run 800 m without pain as outcome measure were used as primary outcome measure in the studies of Nissen et al.[11] and Johnston et al.[13] Moen et al.[12] used time to complete a running program as the primary outcome measure.

The objective and duration of our study is different from the previously published RCTs which examined the efficacy of specific therapy regimen on shin splints.[11],[12],[13],[32] We were interested in determining whether the addition of taping contributes to resolution of symptom of pain or not and whether the addition of KT improves the capacity of player to train with less pain and improved speed. Our primary objective of interest was the pain response during sprint and at rest. Limb volume and duration of sprint were the secondary objective. The parameter of pain at RIC of muscle reflects the extent of dysfunction of muscle and tendon. This parameter has not been used previously in the research of shin splints. It is suggested that MTSS is a consequence of repetitive stress imposed by impact forces that eccentrically fatigue the muscle of leg and reduce their shock absorption ability resulting in transmission of excess forces on the bone leading to periostitis, enthesis, fibrositis, myositis, traction periostitis, tenosynovitis, and tendonitis of the tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, soleus, or flexor hallucis longus muscles.[6] Increased pronation is known to increase the ground reaction forces and thus is considered as associated with the genesis of MTSS. Griebert et al.[1] have shown that KT application reduced the rate of medial loading in participants with history of MTSS. We speculated that proposed correction of altered biomechanics by application of KT would facilitate the muscle function which would be reflected in lesser pain intensity during RICs and improvement of sprint performance.

However, significant between-group differences were not observed either in pain at RIC or duration of sprint. Previous reports with regard to the effect of KT on muscle function and functional performance yielded inconclusive results. The results of this study are in agreement with the studies that reported no effect of KT application on muscle function[33],[34],[35],[36],[37],[38],[39],[40],[41],[42],[43],[44] and performance.[45],[46],[47],[48],[49],[50],[51] However, it is in variance with the studies reporting beneficial effect of KT on muscle function[52],[53],[54] and performance.[55],[56],[57],[58],[59]

With regard to the efficacy of KT in pain reduction in acute and chronic conditions, contradictory findings are reported in literature. Some studies have reported significant reduction of pain with application of KT.[28],[29],[30],[31],[60],[61],[62],[63],[64],[65] On the other hand, an equal number of studies have failed to demonstrate a reduction in pain intensity following KT applications.[18],[30],[34],[35],[66],[67],[68] The finding of the present study provides support to the latter group of studies. The parameter of pain at rest and pain with 50 m sprint did not demonstrate significant within or between-group differences before and after application of tape on all 3 days. Further, these differences also did not surpass minimally clinically important difference for pain.

Thelen et al.[66] did not observe any significant difference in pain score either after KT or sham KT (RT) application in participants with shoulder impingement syndrome. Firth et al.[34] (2010) studied the effectiveness of KT on function, pain, and motoneuronal excitability in achilles tendinopathy and reported no immediate effects on KT on these parameters. In patients with PFPS pain, Aytar et al.[33] observed that no significant difference was found between groups regarding the intensity of pain during ascending and descending stairs and walking. Akbas et al.[30] in a randomized controlled trial studied the effect of additional KT over exercise in treatment of patients with PFPS and concluded that the addition of KT did not improve results. Parreira et al. observed that KT with convolutions was no more effective than simple application of tape.[19] Paoloni et al. observed that KT was not more effective than conventional physical therapy in treating chronic low back pain patients.[68]

On the other hand, in a study on the patient with plantar fasciitis, Tsai[31] reported that the addition of KT to traditional physiotherapy program consisting of therapeutic ultrasound and TENS to the plantar fascia produced a significant reduction in pain intensity and in thickness of plantar fascia at the insertion site. However, the methodology of this study has been questioned in subsequent review.[19] Evermann[62] concluded that KT was superior to conventional multimodality physiotherapy but did not report between-group differences in pain severity as a continuous outcome at equivalent time points but did report significantly more rapid resolution of symptoms with KT. Simsek et al. concluded that adding KT to exercises is more effective than exercises alone in shoulder pain.[28] Castro-Sánchez et al. in a study comparing the effect of 7 days of KT with sham taping on back pain observed that although KT reduced disability and pain, the effects were too small to be clinically worthwhile.[64] Similar observation was reported by González-Iglesias et al. in participants with neck pain.[60]

In a systematic review of studies, Parreira et al. concluded that comparison of KT with sham taping either provided no significant benefit or its effect was too small to be clinically worthwhile.[19] On the other hand, the systematic review of Lim and Tay[69] concluded that KT was superior to minimal intervention but was not more effective than other forms of intervention in reducing pain.

Pain-reducing effect of KT is attributed partially to its decongestive property of KT. It is claimed that lifting of skin creates additional space that facilities the accelerated absorption of excess fluid. The parameter of volume of limb was included in the study to evaluate this aspect. It was anticipated that KT would produce significant reduction of limb volume in participants with shin splints. However, no effect of any intervention was observed in any group.

The studies examining this issue have reported contradictory claims. In a study evaluating the role of KT in patients who developed edema of the thigh after undergoing limb lengthening by ilizarov method, Bialoszewski et al. reported that the addition of KT to standard lymphatic drainage therapy resulted in significant reduction of circumference of lower limb, a reduction in limb volume.[70] However, they had not conducted a between-group analysis, and it is not clear whether the reduction was significantly different from sham taping group or not.[71] Tsai et al. reported that the addition of KT to standard decongestive lymphatic therapy in breast cancer-related lymphedema resulted in no significant difference in limb size, water composition of upper extremity, lymphedema-related syndrome, and health-related quality of life scores.[31] Unlike the present study, none of the previous studies have used the parameter of volumetric measurement of limb. This parameter is more objective than the circumference measurement and is routinely used in hand conditions to monitor the swelling.[23] Two inferences can be drawn from the examining the data: (a) interventions were ineffective in reducing swelling or (b) the component of swelling is not a constant feature of shin splints. Investigator could not locate any study that evaluated the volume changes associated with shin splints making it difficult to draw a conclusion. There is a need to explore this issue in future studies.

Parreira et al. attributed the growing use of KT to massive marketing campaigns rather than high-quality, scientific evidence with clinically relevant outcomes.[19] They suggested that the clinicians should carefully consider the costs and the effectiveness of this intervention when deciding whether to use this intervention. The similar opinion was also put forth by Kalron and Bar-Sela who noted that in contrast with most physical therapy modalities, the marketing of KT tape utilizes far more intense promotion strategies that may have the ability to attract the uninformed amateur sports professionals.[71] They further opined that the role of health professional should be to confirm the effectiveness of a modality through evidence-based knowledge not only due to its popularity.


  Conclusions and Limitations Top


The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KT in real life situation where the sports person continued their normal training schedule and the treatment was carried along with the training and aggravating situations. We have not observed any significant advantage of KT application in participants with shin splints over RT or no tape conditions. Being a prospective case–control study, it has not employed independent assessor to record the outcome measures which can be considered as a major limitation of the study. The inability to control the psychological variables that might have affected the outcomes could be another limitation as taping is known to exert placebo effect. In view of relatively small sample size, it is imperative to cross validate the observations on a larger sample size using double-blind randomized trials. Postpriori analysis using the data of VAS at 50 m sprint indicates that a sample size of 23 in each group is required to detect the meaningful clinical difference of 3. In conclusion, much against the popular perception, the addition of KT has not yielded beneficial effect in the management of shin splints.

Financial support and sponsorship

This study was done as part of academic work in the university and no funding was received from any government or non-government organization.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Griebert MC, Needle AR, McConnell J, Kaminski TW. Lower-leg kinesio tape reduces rate of loading in participants with medial tibial stress syndrome. Phys Ther Sport 2016;18:62-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Brotzman SB, Wilk KE. Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby; 2003. p. 523-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Clanton TO, Solcher BW. Chronic leg pain in the athlete. Clin Sports Med 1994;13:743-59.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Moen MH, Tol JL, Weir A, Steunebrink M, De Winter TC. Medial tibial stress syndrome: A critical review. Sports Med 2009;39:523-46.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Bates P. Shin splints – A literature review. Br J Sports Med 1985;19:132-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: A systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:32-40.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Brukner P, Khan K. Clinical Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Australia: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd.; 2008. p. 567-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Singh A, Sethy GB, Sandhu JS. A comparative study of the efficacy of iontophoresis and phonophoresis in the treatment of shin splint. Physiotherapy 2003;1:17-20.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Smith W, Winn F, Parette R. Comparative study using four modalities in shinsplint treatments*. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8:77-80.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Robertson ME. The Relative Effectiveness of Periosteal Pecking Combined with Therapeutic Ultrasound Compared to Therapeutic Ultrasound in the Treatment of Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Type II. Dissertation of Master's Degree in Technology: Chiropractic of Faculty of Health at the Durban Institute of Technology, Durban, South-Africa; 2012. Available from: http://www.ir.dut.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10321/166/Robertson_2003.pdf?sequence=5. [Last accessed on 2016 Mar 28].  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Nissen LR, Astvad K, Madsen L. Low-energy laser therapy in medial tibial stress syndrome. Ugeskr Laeger 1994;156:7329-31.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Moen MH, Rayer S, Schipper M, Schmikli S, Weir A, Tol JL, et al. Shockwave treatment for medial tibial stress syndrome in athletes; a prospective controlled study. Br J Sports Med 2012;46:253-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Johnston E, Flynn T, Bean M, Breton M, Scherer M, Dreitzler G, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a leg orthosis versus traditional treatment for soldiers with shin splints: A pilot study. Mil Med 2006;171:40-4.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Moen MH, Bongers T, Bakker EW, Weir A, Zimmermann WO, van der Werve M, et al. The additional value of a pneumatic leg brace in the treatment of recruits with medial tibial stress syndrome; a randomized study. J R Army Med Corps 2010;156:236-40.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Rompe JD, Cacchio A, Furia JP, Maffulli N. Low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a treatment for medial tibial stress syndrome. Am J Sports Med 2010;38:125-32.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Brinkman MJ, Buist I, Bredeweg SW. The treatment effect of pulsed electromagnetic field in sports athletes with medial tibial stress syndrome; a pilot study. Geneeskunde en Sport 2012;3:12-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Winters M, Eskes M, Weir A, Moen MH, Backx FJ, Bakker EW. Treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome: A systematic review. Sports Med 2013;43:1315-33.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Kase K, Wallis J, Kase T. Clinical Therapeutic Actions of the Kinesio Taping Methods. 2nd ed. Albuquerque, New Mexico: Kinesio Taping Association; 2003. p. 12-40.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Parreira PCS, Costa LCM, Takahashi R, Hespanhol Junior LC, da Luz Junior MA, da Silva TM, et al. Kinesio Taping to generate skin convolutions is not better than sham taping for people with chronic non-specific low back pain: A randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 2014;60:90-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Moen MH, Weir A, van Rijthoven A, Reurink G, Tol JL, Backx FJ. Medial tibial stress syndrome induced by methotrexate; a case report. Turk J Rheumatol 2011;26:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Patel DS, Roth M, Kapil N. Stress fractures: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Am Fam Physician 2011;83:39-46.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Roberts J, Alan A, Christpher L, Scott P. How to diagnose and treat chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Podiatry Today 2009;21:108-12. Available from: http://www.podiatrytoday.com/how-to-diagnose-and-treat-chronic-exertional-compartment-syndrome#sthash.gDalIYPUq.vaXZ8mN.dpuf [Last accessed on 2016 Mar 28].  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Magee DJ. Orthopaedic Assessment. 5th ed. London: Elsevier; 2008. p. 30-3.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Herr KA, Spratt K, Mobily PR, Richardson G. Pain intensity assessment in older adults: Use of experimental pain to compare psychometric properties and usability of selected pain scales with younger adults. Clin J Pain 2004;20:207-19.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Jensen MP, McFarland CA. Increasing the reliability and validity of pain intensity measurement in chronic pain patients. Pain 1993;55:195-203.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Stratford PW, Spadoni G. Feature articles – The reliability, consistency, and clinical application of a numeric pain rating scale. Physiother Can 2001;53:88-91.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Kendall FP, McKreary EK, Provance PG, Rodgers MM, Romani WA. Muscles Testing and Function, with Posture and Pain. 5th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005. p. 407-15.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Simsek HH, Balki S, Keklik SS, Öztürk H, Elden H. Does kinesio taping in addition to exercise therapy improve the outcomes in subacromial impingement syndrome? A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2013;47:104-10.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Llopis LG, Aranda MC. Physiotherapeutic intervention with neuromuscular dressing in patients with mechanical cervicalgia. A pilot study. Physiotherapy 2012;34:189-95.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Akbas E, Atay AO, Yüksel I. The effects of additional kinesio taping over exercise in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2011;45:335-41.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Tsai CT, Chang WD, Lee JP. Effects of short-term treatment with kinesio taping for plantar fasciitis. J Muscoskeletal Pain 2010;18:71-80.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Andrish JT, Bergfeld JA, Walheim J. A prospective study on the management of shin splints. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1974;56:1697-700.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Aytar A, Ozunlua N, Surenkokb O, Baltacıc G, Oztopd P, Karatasd M. Initial effects of kinesior taping in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: A randomized, double blind study. Isokinet Exerc Sci 2011;19:135-42.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Firth BL, Dingley P, Davies ER, Lewis JS, Alexander CM. The effect of kinesiotape on function, pain, and motoneuronal excitability in healthy people and people with Achilles tendinopathy. Clin J Sport Med 2010;20:416-21.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Alam S, Malhotra D, Munjal J, Chachra A. Immediate effect of kinesio taping on shoulder muscle strength and range of motion in healthy individuals: A randomized trial. Hong Kong Physiother J 2015;33:80-8. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1013702515000032. [Last accessed on 2016 Mar 28].  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Janwantanakul P, Gaogasigam C. Vastus lateralis and vastus medialis obliquus muscle activity during the application of inhibition and facilitation taping techniques. Clin Rehabil 2005;19:12-9.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Cools AM, Witvrouw EE, Danneels LA, Cambier DC. Does taping influence electromyographic muscle activity in the scapular rotators in healthy shoulders? Man Ther 2002;7:154-62.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Fu TC, Wong AM, Pei YC, Wu KP, Chou SW, Lin YC. Effect of kinesio taping on muscle strength in athletes-a pilot study. J Sci Med Sport 2008;11:198-201.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Halski T, Dymarek R, Ptaszkowski K, Slupska L, Rajfur K, Rajfur J, et al. Kinesiology taping does not modify electromyographic activity or muscle flexibility of quadriceps femoris muscle: A randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study in healthy volleyball players. Med Sci Monit 2015;21:2232-9.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Lins CA, Neto FL, Amorim AB, Macedo Lde B, Brasileiro JS. Kinesio Taping(®) does not alter neuromuscular performance of femoral quadriceps or lower limb function in healthy subjects: Randomized, blind, controlled, clinical trial. Man Ther 2013;18:41-5.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Soylu AR, Irmak R, Baltaci G. Acute effects of kinesio taping on muscular endurance and fatigue by using surface electromyography signals of masseter muscle. Med Sport 2011;15:13-6.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Halski T, Ptaszkowski K, Slupska L, Paprocka-Borowicz M, Dymarek R, Taradaj J, et al. Short-term effects of kinesio taping and cross taping application in the treatment of latent upper trapezius trigger points: A prospective, single-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015;2015:191925.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Poon KY, Li SM, Roper MG, Wong MK, Wong O, Cheung RT. Kinesiology tape does not facilitate muscle performance: A deceptive controlled trial. Man Ther 2015;20:130-3.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Chang HY, Chou KY, Lin JJ, Lin CF, Wang CH. Immediate effect of forearm kinesio taping on maximal grip strength and force sense in healthy collegiate athletes. Phys Ther Sport 2010;11:122-7.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Cheung RT, Yau QK, Wong K, Lau P, So A, Chan N, et al. Kinesiology tape does not promote vertical jumping performance: A deceptive crossover trial. Man Ther 2016;21:89-93.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Cai C, Au IP, An W, Cheung RT. Facilitatory and inhibitory effects of kinesio tape: Fact or fad? J Sci Med Sport 2016;19:109-12.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Oliveira AK, Borges DT, Lins CA, Cavalcanti RL, Macedo LB, Brasileiro JS. Immediate effects of kinesio Taping(®) on neuromuscular performance of quadriceps and balance in individuals submitted to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A randomized clinical trial. J Sci Med Sport 2016;19:2-6.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Fernandes de Jesus J, de Almeida Novello A, Bezerra Nakaoka G, Curcio Dos Reis A, Fukuda TY, Fernandes Bryk F. Kinesio taping effect on quadriceps strength and lower limb function of healthy individuals: A blinded, controlled, randomized, clinical trial. Phys Ther Sport 2016;18:27-31.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Hettle D, Linton L, Baker JS, Donoghue O. The effect of kinesio taping on functional performance in chronic ankle instability – Preliminary Study. Clin Res Foot Ankle 2013;1:2-5.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Nunes GS, de Noronha M, Cunha HS, Ruschel C, Borges NG Jr. Effect of kinesio taping on jumping and balance in athletes: A crossover randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 2013;27:3183-9.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Briem K, Eythörsdöttir H, Magnúsdóttir RG, Pálmarsson R, Rúnarsdöttir T, Sveinsson T. Effects of kinesio tape compared with nonelastic sports tape and the untaped ankle during a sudden inversion perturbation in male athletes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2011;41:328-35.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Slupik A, Dwornik M, Bialoszewski D, Zych E. Effect of kinesio taping on bioelectrical activity of vastus medialis muscle. Preliminary report. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2007;9:644-51.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Gusella A, Bettuolo M, Contiero F, Volpe G. Kinesiologic taping and muscular activity: A myofascial hypothesis and a randomised, blinded trial on healthy individuals. J Bodyw Mov Ther 2014;18:405-11.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Vithoulka I, Beneka A, Malliou P, Aggelousis N, Karatsolis K, Diamantopoulos K. The effects of kinesio-taping on quadriceps strength during isokinetic exercise in healthy non athlete women. Isokinet Exerc Sci 2010;18:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Aktas G, Baltaci G. Does kinesio taping increase knee muscles strength and functional performance? Isokinet Exerc Sci 2011;19:149-55.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Huang CY, Hsieh TH, Lu SC, Su FC. Effect of the kinesio tape to muscle activity and vertical jump performance in healthy inactive people. Biomed Eng Online 2011;10:70.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Lee MH, Lee CR, Park JS, Lee SY, Jeong TG, Son GS, et al. Influence of kinesio taping on the motor neuron conduction velocity. J Phys Ther Sci 2011;23:313-5.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Eom SY, Lee WJ, Lee JI, Lee EH, Lee HY, Chung EJ. The effect of ankle kinesio taping on range of motion and agility during exercise in university students. Phys Ther Rehabil Sci 2014;3:63-8.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Van Herzeele M, van Cingel R, Maenhout A, De Mey K, Cools A. Does the application of kinesiotape change scapular kinematics in healthy female handball players? Int J Sports Med 2013;34:950-5.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
González-Iglesias J, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Cleland JA, Huijbregts P, Del Rosario Gutiérrez-Vega M. Short-term effects of cervical kinesio taping on pain and cervical range of motion in patients with acute whiplash injury: A randomized clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2009;39:515-21.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Kaya E, Zinnuroglu M, Tugcu I. Kinesio taping compared to physical therapy modalities for the treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome. Clin Rheumatol 2011;30:201-7.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Evermann W. Effects of elastic taping on selected functional impairments of the musculoligament apparatus. Complementary Integrative Medicine 2008;49:32-6.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
Campolo M, Babu J, Dmochowska K, Scariah S, Varughese J. A comparison of two taping techniques (kinesio and mcconnell) and their effect on anterior knee pain during functional activities. Int J Sports Phys Ther 2013;8:105-10.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Castro-Sánchez AM, Lara-Palomo IC, Matarán-Peñarrocha GA, Fernández-Sánchez M, Sánchez-Labraca N, Arroyo-Morales M. Kinesio taping reduces disability and pain slightly in chronic non-specific low back pain: A randomised trial. J Physiother 2012;58:89-95.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
Sanjay KP, Babu V, Kumar S, Kadam V. Short term efficacy of kinesio taping and exercises on chronic mechanical neck pain. Int J Physiother Res 2013;1:283-92.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.
Thelen MD, Dauber JA, Stoneman PD. The clinical efficacy of kinesio tape for shoulder pain: A randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2008;38:389-95.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Saavedra-Hernández M, Castro-Sánchez AM, Arroyo-Morales M, Cleland JA, Lara-Palomo IC, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C. Short-term effects of kinesio taping versus cervical thrust manipulation in patients with mechanical neck pain: A randomized clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42:724-30.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.
Paoloni M, Bernetti A, Fratocchi G, Mangone M, Parrinello L, Del Pilar Cooper M, et al. Kinesio taping applied to lumbar muscles influences clinical and electromyographic characteristics in chronic low back pain patients. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2011;47:237-44.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.
Lim EC, Tay MG. Kinesio taping in musculoskeletal pain and disability that lasts for more than 4 weeks: Is it time to peel off the tape and throw it out with the sweat? A systematic review with meta-analysis focused on pain and also methods of tape application. Br J Sports Med 2015;49:1558-66.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.
Bialoszewski D, Wozniak W, Zarek S. Clinical efficacy of kinesiology taping in reducing edema of the lower limbs in patients treated with the ilizarov method – Preliminary report. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2009;11:46-54.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.
Kalron A, Bar-Sela S. A systematic review of the effectiveness of kinesio taping – Fact or fashion? Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2013;49:699-709.  Back to cited text no. 71
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
  Methodology
  Results
  Discussion
   Conclusions and ...
   References
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3353    
    Printed165    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded458    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]